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Linked Science Core Vocabulary Specification

29 November 2011

This version:
http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns-20111129
Latest version:
http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns
Previous version:
http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns-20110526
Revision:
Revision: 0.91
Authors:
Alkyoni Baglatzi (Institute for Geoinformatics, University of Muenster, Germany)
Tomi Kauppinen (Institute for Geoinformatics, University of Muenster, Germany)
Carsten Keßler (Institute for Geoinformatics, University of Muenster, Germany)
Contributors:
See acknowledgements.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. This copyright applies to the Linked Science Core Vocabulary and accompanying documentation.

Valid XHTML + RDFa Linked Science Vocabulary Specification relies on W3C's RDF technology, an open Web standard that can be freely used by anyone.

This visual layout and structure of the specification was adapted from the Open Provenance Model Vocabulary edited by Jun Zhao, SIOC Core Ontology Specification edited by Uldis Bojars and John G. Breslin and the Provenance Vocabulary Core Ontology Specification edited by Olaf Hartig and Jun Zhao.


Abstract

LSC, the Linked Science Core Vocabulary, is a lightweight vocabulary providing terms to enable publishers and researchers to relate things in science to time, space, and themes. More precisely, LSC is designed for describing scientific resources including elements of research, their context, and for interconnecting them. We introduce LSC as an example of building blocks for Linked Science to communicate the linkage between scientific resources in a machine-understandable way. The “core” in the name refers to the fact that LSC only defines the basic terms for science. We argue that the success of Linked Science—or Linked Data in general—lies in interconnected, yet distributed vocabularies that minimize ontological commitments. More specific terms needed by different scientific communities can therefore be introduced as extensions of LSC. LSC is hosted at LinkedScience.org; please check also other available vocabularies at LinkedScience.org/vocabularies.

This documents specifies the classes and properties introduced by the Linked Science Core Vocabulary.


Status of this document

NOTE: This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document.

This specification is an evolving document. This document may be updated or added to based on implementation experience, but no commitment is made by the authors regarding future updates. This document is generated by combining a machine-readable Linked Science Core Vocabulary Namespace expressed in RDF/XML with a specification template and a set of per-term documents.

Table of contents


1. Introduction

The Linked Science Core Vocabulary is defined as a set of classes and properties.

You may browse the also using Sindice Inspector as a graph or as a list.

The XML Namespace URI that should be used by implementations of this specification is:

The prefix the Linked Science Core vocabulary is "lsc":

2. The Linked Science Core Vocabulary at a glance

An alphabetical index of terms from the Linked Science Core Vocabulary, by class and by property, are given below. All the terms are hyperlinked to their detailed description for quick reference.

Classes: | Publication | Research | Researcher | Method | Hypothesis | Prediction | Conclusion | Data |

Properties: | isAboutTime | isAboutRegion | reportedIn | reports | isSupportedBy | dataProduced | dataUsed | timeAccepted | timeRevised | timeSubmitted | participatesIn | makes | tests | confirms | falsifies | produces | methodUsed |

3. Descriptions about LSC

The Core LSC definitions presented here are written using a computer language (RDF/OWL) that makes it easy for software to process some basic facts about the terms in the Linked Science Core Vocabulary, and consequently about the things described using LSC.

3.1. Evolution and extension of LSC

The Linked Science Core Vocabulary is identified by the namespace URI "http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#".

Revisions and extensions of LSC are conducted through edits to the namespace document, which by convention is published on the Web at the namespace URI.

The properties and types defined here provide some basic concepts for describing information relevant about research. Other vocabularies (e.g. AIISO - Academic Institution Internal Structure Ontology, BIBO - The Bibliographic Ontology, W3C Ontology for Media Resources, the Time Ontology in OWL, the Open Provenance Model Vocabulary, Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies (SPAR), SWAN Ontology etc.) can also be mixed in with LSC terms. LSC is designed to be extended.

4. Cross-reference for core LSC classes and properties

Classes:

Class: Publication

Any kind of publication eg. scientific paper, book, journal publication.

identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#Publication
Subclass of:bibo:Document

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Class: Research

Any kind of research.

identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#Research

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Class: Researcher

A researcher that conducts research.

identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#Researcher
Subclass of:foaf:Person

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Class: Method

A method used in a scientific research.

identifier:http://linkedscience.org/teach/ns#Method

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Class: Hypothesis

Any kind of hypothesis.

identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#Hypothesis

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Class: Prediction

Prediction made by a hypothesis.

identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#Prediction

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Class: Conclusion

Conclusion is made by research.

identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#Conclusion

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Class: Data

Any kind of data.

identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#Data

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Properties:

Property: reportedIn

Abstract property to relate a research to the publications it is reported in.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#reportedIn
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Research
Range: lsc:Publication

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Property: isAboutTime

Abstract property to relate a research to the time period it refers.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#isAboutTime
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Research
Range: xsd:dateTime

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Property: isAboutRegion

Abstract property to define the region a research refers to.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#isAboutRegion
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Sub-property of: dct:coverage
Domain: lsc:Research
Range: tisc:Region

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Property: reports

Abstract property to report the research of a publication.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#reports
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Publication
Range: lsc:Research

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Property: isSupportedBy

Abstract property to express the relation between the hypothesis and the evidence of a research.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#isSupportedBy
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Hypothesis
Range: lsc:Research

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Property: dataProduced

Describes the relation between a research and the data produced in it.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#dataProduced
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Research
Range: lsc:Data

[back to overview]


Property: dataUsed

Describes the relation between a research and the data used to conduct it.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#dataUsed
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Research
Range: lsc:Data

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Property: timeAccepted

Abstract property to relate a publication to the time it was accepted.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#timeAccepted
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Publication
Range: xsd:dateTime

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Property: timeRevised

Abstract property to relate a publication to the time it was revised.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#timeRevised
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Publication
Range: xsd:dateTime

[back to overview]


Property: timeSubmitted

Abstract property to relate a publication to the time it was submitted.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#timeSubmitted
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Publication
Range: xsd:dateTime

[back to overview]


Property: participatesIn

A researcher participates in some research.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#participatesIn
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Researcher
Range: lsc:Research

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Property: makes

A hypothesis makes a prediction.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#makes
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Hypothesis
Range: lsc:Prediction

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Property: tests

A research tests a hypothesis.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#tests
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Research
Range: lsc:Hypothesis

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Property: falsifies

A research falsifies a hypothesis.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#falsifies
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Research
Range: lsc:Hypothesis

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Property: confirms

A research confirms a hypothesis.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#confirms
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Research
Range: lsc:Hypothesis

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Property: produces

A research produces a conclusion.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#produces
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Research
Range: lsc:Conclusion

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Property: methodUsed

A method used in a research.

Identifier:http://linkedscience.org/lsc/ns#methodUsed
OWL Type:ObjectProperty
Domain: lsc:Research
Range: lsc:Method

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5. Acknowledgement

6. References

The Linked Science Core vocabulary is explained in the following publication:

7. Change log